Federal District Court Judge Walter E. Hoffman files his opinion on the identical class action lawsuits: Beckett v. School Board of the City of Norfolk and Adkins v. School Board of the City of Newport News, both seeking the desegregation of schools in those cities. He declares the Pupil Placement Act unconstitutional and orders the school boards to integrate by September 1957. (See first page of "Background on Norfolk and Newport News Integration.)
February 26, 1957
District Court Order enjoins "the school authorities of Norfolk, Virginia, from refusing solely on account of race or color, to admit, enroll or educate in any school operated by them, any child otherwise qualified."
No action is taken to admit black students into all-white schools, primarily because of pending lawsuits.
September 25, 1957
Federal troops are sent to Little Rock, Arkansas to admit nine black students ("Little Rock 9") to an all-white high school.