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ODU Libraries Online Exhibitions


The resources listed here primarily relate to Norfolk's story of desegregation. Call numbers are for items located in the Old Dominion University Libraries. Check your own library catalog for local holdings.

More resources are available through the Desegregation of Virginia Education (DOVE) website.


  • Brown, Delores Johnson. 2016. Bullying Must Go: Says a Norfolk 17 HeroiUniverse.
  • Heidelberg, Andrew I. 2006. The Norfolk 17: A personal narrative on desegregation in Norfolk, Virginia, in 1958-1962. Pittsburgh, Pa.: RoseDog Books. (LC214.23.N75.H45 2006)

  • Turner, Patricia, et al. 2013. Today I Met a Rainbow: The Story of Patricia Turner. Bloomington, IN : AuthorHouse. (LC214.23.N75 T87 2013)



  • The Norfolk 17: Their Story (WHRO, PBS, 2009). They were just teenagers who wanted a chance at a better education. But in 1959 Norfolk, that was a problem. African-American students weren't allowed to go to historically white schools. Lisa Godley narrates this WHRO program, which includes interviews with 10 of the Norfolk 17: Delores Johnson Brown, Carol Wellington, Andrew Heidelberg, Olivia Driver Lindsay, Patricia Turner, Geraldine Talley Hobby, LaVera Forbes Brown, Patricia Godbolt White, Johnnie Rouse, and Betty Jean Reed Kea.
  • Andrew Heidelberg on the Norfolk 17 Reunion (WAVY-TV, 2009). News report about Norview High School's celebration of the 50th Anniversary of the Norfolk 17, several of whom were guests. 

  • The Norfolk 17: Geraldine Talley Hobby (BeeNoah H., 2015).  Geraldine Talley Hobby is just one the 17 members of The Norfolk 17. The members of the Norfolk 17 were the true heroes of the school integration struggle in Norfolk, Virginia. As young men and women, they entered six of the previously all-white public schools in the city, persevering in the face of intense racial animosity. In doing so, they secured for themselves, their friends and family, and indeed their entire people, a new place in American society.
  • Norfolk, Virginia's Massive Resistance to Integration (Ted Heck Productions, 2018). Includes interviews with Andrew Heidelberg and Patricia Turner.
  • Picked for a Purpose: Norfolk 17 (Black Public Media, 2007). The inspiration for this story was a group of students in the 1960s who were referred to as the Norfolk 17. When these Black students were bussed to White schools, the Norfolk school board closed all of the schools in Norfolk. This project will examine education in Norfolk, Virginia by addressing what happened to these students and assessing how African Americans have fared in this system since the 1960s to the present.

  • Massive Resistance in Norfolk - Civil Rights Norfolk 17 (NorfolkTV, 2008).  In 2008, "the City Council appointed a committee to create a series of events commemorating the end of massive resistance. It was headed by former Norfolk Mayor Joe Leafe and Former Vice-Mayor Joe Green." 
  • Massive Resistance, Panel 1 (, 2009).  A conference was held marking the 50th anniversary of the 1959 end of Massive Resistance, Virginia's campaign to circumvent the public school desegregation. Includes Patricia Turner and Andrew Heidelberg.

  • Locked Out: The Fall of Massive Resistance  (PBS, 2009).  Covers desegregation in Virginia, but includes information about Norfolk and includes Patricia Turner and Delores Johnson Brown.



  • Campbell, Ernest Queener. 1960. When a city closes its schools. Chapel Hill: Institute for Research in Social Science, University of North Carolina. (LA381.N8.C3)

  • Eaton, Susan E.  and Christina Meldrum. 1996. Broken promises: Resegregation in Norfolk, Virginia. In Dismantling desegregation: The quiet reversal of Brown v. Board of Education, ed. Gary Orfield and Susan E. Eaton: pp. 115-141. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. (LC212.62.O72 1996) 

  • Epps-Robertson, Candace. 2018. Resisting Brown: Race, literacy, and citizenship in the heart of Virginia. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press. (LC212.522.V8 E67 2018)
  • Ford, Charles H. 2008. The ecumenical moment: Religious support for integrated schools in Norfolk, 1954-1959. In Voices from within the veil: African American perspectives on democracy ed. William Alexander, Cassandra Newby-Alexander and Charles H. Ford:315-29. Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. (E185 .V65 2008)

  • Gordon, Margaret L. 1988. A documented history of the First Baptist Church, Bute Street, Norfolk, Virginia, 1800-1988: Rev. Dr. G. Murray, pastor. Virginia Beach, Va.: Hill's Printing Co. (BX6480.V8.N83 1988)

  • Leidholdt, Alexander. 1997. Standing before the shouting mob: Lenoir Chambers and Virginia's massive resistance to public-school integration. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. (LC214.22.V8L45 1997)

  • Lewis, Earl. In Their Own Interests: Race, Class, and Power in Twentieth-Century Norfolk, Virginia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991. (F234.N8L48 1991)
  • Littlejohn, Jeffrey L. and Charles Howard Ford. Elusive equality: Desegregation and resegregation in Norfolk's public schools. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2012. (LC214.23.N75 L58 2012 and electronic)

    • Using Norfolk as a case and analyzing the struggles and victories of African Americans in equalizing and integrating the city’s schools, the two authors outline the history of school integration in southern public schools from the 1930s to today.

  • Newby-Alexander, Cassandra, Jeffrey Littlejohn, Charles H. Ford, Sonia Yaco, and Norfolk Historical Society. 2009. Hampton Roads: Remembering our schools. Charleston, SC: History Press. (LA380.H36 H36 2009)
  • Parramore, Thomas C., Peter C. Stewart, and Tommy Bogger. 1994. A sojourn in the Byrd-cage. Chapter 25 in Norfolk: The first four centuries. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.   (F234.N8.P375 1994)

  • Peltason, J. W. 1961. Fifty-eight lonely men: Southern Federal judges and school desegregation. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World. (KF4155.P4)

  • Rorer, Henry S. 1968. History of Norfolk public schools, 1681-1968. Unpublished manuscript. (LA381.N6.R6 1968)

  • White, Forrest R. 1992. Pride and prejudice: School desegregation and urban renewal in Norfolk, 1950-1959. Westport, Conn.: Praeger. (HT177.N66.W45 1992)


  • Brewbaker, John Joseph. 1960. Desegregation in the Norfolk public schools. Norfolk, Va.: Southern Regional Council. (Pamphlet, ILL)

  • Lightsey, William M. 1959. Organizing to save public schools: How Virginians rallied to the defense of the public school system in the Virginia Committee for Public Schools. Manassas, Va.: Messenger Press. (Pamphlet, digital collection Item 005_001_012_001)

  • Reif, Jane. 1960. Crisis in Norfolk. [Richmond] Virginia Council on Human Relations. (Pamphlet, Item 054_001_005_001)


  • Bly, Antonio T. 1998. The thunder during the storm -- school desegregation in Norfolk, Virginia, 1957-1959:  A local historyJournal of Negro Education 67, no. 2: 106-114.

  • Carr, Leslie G. 1990. Resegregation: The Norfolk caseUrban Education 24, no. 4: 404-413.

  • Doyle, Mary C. 2005. From Desegregation to Resegregation: Public Schools in Norfolk, Virginia 1954-2002. The Journal of African American History 90, no. 1/2: 64-83. 
  • Littlejohn, Jeffrey L. and Charles H. Ford. Arthur D. Morse, School Desegregation, and the Making of CBS News, 1955–1964American Journalism 31, no. 2 (2014): 166-185.

  • Littlejohn, Jeffrey L. and Charles H. Ford. Moving "Mere Pawns on the Chessboard": Walter E. Hoffman, Jr., School Desegregation, and Busing in Norfolk, VirginiaSouthern Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal of the South 22, no. 2 (2015): 47-72.

  • Morris, James Mcgrath. 2001. A chink in the armor: The black-led struggle for school desegregation in Arlington, Virginia, and the end of massive resistanceJournal of Policy History 13, no. 3: 329-366.

  • Newman, Mark. 1997. The Baptist General Association of Virginia and desegregation, 1931-1980Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 105, no. 3: 257-.

  • Pace, David. 1974. Lenoir Chambers opposes massive resistance: An editor against Virginia's democratic organization, 1955-1959Virginia Magazine of History and Biography82, no. 4: 415-429.

  • Parkinson, Robert G. 2004. First from the right: Massive resistance and the image of Thomas Jefferson in the 1950sVirginia Magazine of History and Biography 112, no. 1: 2-35.

  • Robinson, William H. 1959. Integration's delay and frustration toleranceJournal of Negro Education 28, no. 4: 472-475.

  • Rosenthal, Steven J. 1979. Racism and desegregation at Old Dominion UniversityIntegrated Education 17, no. 1-2: 40-42.

  • Virginia's 'massive resistance' laws declared unconstitutional. 1959. Journal of Negro Education 28, no. 2: 163-172.

  • White, Forrest R. 1994. Brown revistedPhi Delta Kappan 76, no. 1: 13-20.


  • Burnette, Ann Elizabeth. 1996. A lost cause revisited: Virginia's massive resistance, 1954-1962. Ph.D., Northwestern University. (ILL)
  • Cool, Frank Warren, III. 1983. A study of the Norfolk public school desegregation process (Virginia). Ed.D., Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. (LC214.23.N8C66 1983 Special Collections)
  • Ford, Nancy Parker. 1989. The peaceful resolution of Norfolk's integration crisis of 1958-1959. Thesis (MA), Old Dominion University. (LD4331.H47 F53)
  • Hershman, James Howard Jr. 1978. A rumbling in the museum: The opponents of Virginia's massive resistance. Ph.D., University of Virginia. (ILL)
  • Jewell-Jackson, Deborah Moira. 1995. Ending mandatory busing for desegregation in Norfolk, Virginia: A case study explaining the decision-making process in a formerly de jure southern school district. Ed.D., Harvard University. (LC214.23.N8J49 1995 Special Collections)


  • Bradley, Paul. "Norfolk integration still elusive." The Virginian-Pilot, May 16, 2004. 

  • Friddell, Guy. "Taking a stand: A historian details the impact of a courageous newspaper editor on Norfolk's integration struggle." The Virginian-Pilot, May 4, 1997.

  • Friedman, Vicki L. "Busting through the color line:  Norview's Andy Heidelberg recalls the role he played in integrating high school sports in Virginia." The Virginian-Pilot, February 26, 1995.

  • Garza, Sonja. "Veteran recalls crossing color line at Virginia high school." San Antonio Express-News, February 29, 2004. 

  • Gruss, Mike  and Philip Walzer. "Pioneers of Progress." (Series:  Brown v. Board of Education:  1954-2004). The Virginian-Pilot, February 1, 2004. 

  • Guy, Louis. "Massive resistance had many victims." The Virginian-Pilot, July 4, 2004. 

  • King, Kristen. "Granby's 'Lost Class' seeks diplomas." The Virginian-Pilot, February 25, 2004.

  • Kruse, Meredith. "Standing up for history: City recognizes former students for their role on racial front line." The Virginian-Pilot, February 27, 2002. 

  • Mooney, Jeanne. "A reflection of diversity:  Schools promote awareness of heritages; and some teachers provide living lessons." The Virginian-Pilot, August 15, 2002. 

  • Morgan, Nicole. "A turning point in history:  Event remembers the 'Norfolk 17'.”  (Series: Brown V. Board Of Education:  1954-2004.) The Virginian-Pilot, May 17, 2004.

  • Murphy, John. "A testimony to hope: Shunned by Norfolk's schools, 17 black students were educated at First Baptist Church until desegregation was recognized." The Virginian-Pilot, January 5, 1998. 

  • Pressley, Sue Anne and  Bobbye Pratt. "A personal history lesson:  Va. high school classmates face their own legacy." Washington Post, May 2, 2004.

  • Stone, Steve. "Attempting to end segregation, courts order busing; Angry whites respond by placing their children in private or suburban schools." The Virginian-Pilot, October 31, 1999.

  • Stone, Steve. "'Massive resistance' deepens a racial wound;  Virginia defies federally mandated desegregation by closing its schools." The Virginian-Pilot, August 29, 1999.

  • Wharton, Tony. "Church recalls its help for students fighting for right 17 got advice, support to integrate." Roanoke Times & World News, January 4, 1998. 

  • Wharton, Tony. "Norfolk 17 celebrate 40 years after a civil rights milestone closure of six public schools put city, state in Federal battle." The Virginian-Pilot, January 3, 1998.


  • Leola Pearl Beckett v. The School Board of the City of Norfolk, Virginia. In Federal Supplement, 148:430: United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia, Norfolk Division (no. 2214). (The Norfolk Desegregation Papers (MG-92) contain depositions, briefs, interrogatories and proceedings for this case from 1957-1970.)
  • Ruth Pendleton James, a minor, etc., et al. v. J. Lindsay Almond, Jr., Governor of Virginia, et al. 1959. In Federal Supplement, 170:331: United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia, Norfolk Division.
  • Ruth Pendleton James, a minor, etc., et al. v. W. Fred Duckworth, et al. 1959. In Federal Supplement, 170:342: United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia, Norfolk Division. Duckworth v. James appeal - May 18, 1959 decided - 267 F. 2d 224